2000, Ph.D., Ecological Institute, Lund University (Sweden), Thesis Title: Plant-climate interactions over historical and geological time. Thesis Co-Supervisors: Martin T. Sykes & Richard Bradshaw.
1997, M.Sc., Department of Botany, University of Toronto, Thesis Title: The influence of low atmospheric CO2 on temperature stress in Phaseolus vulgaris: implications for Pleistocene environments. Thesis Supervisor: Rowan F. Sage.
1994, Diploma in Forest Resource Management, Faculty of Forestry, University of Toronto.
1989, B.Sc., Double majors in biophysics and anthropology, University of Toronto.